UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

x

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2015

OR

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                     to                      

Commission File Number 001-36352

 

AKEBIA THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

20-8756903

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

245 First Street, Suite 1100, Cambridge, MA

 

02142

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

(617) 871-2098

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site if any, every Interactive Date File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

¨

  

Accelerated filer

 

¨

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

x

  

Smaller reporting company

 

¨

Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨     No  x

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

 

Class

 

Outstanding at May 1, 2015

Common Stock, $0.00001 par value

 

28,837,260

 

 

 

 

 


NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that are being made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, or PSLRA, with the intention of obtaining the benefits of the “safe harbor” provisions of the PSLRA. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these words or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

·

the projected timing of (1) meetings with United States and European regulatory authorities,  (2) commencement of a Phase 3 development program of AKB-6548 in non-dialysis patients with anemia related to chronic kidney disease, (3) submission of an NDA for AKB-6548 and (4) data from our Phase 2 clinical study of AKB-6548 in CKD patients undergoing dialysis, (5) commencement of a Phase 3 development program in dialysis-dependent patients with anemia, (6) filing an Investigational New Drug application with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and (7) completion of preclinical proof-of-concept studies of AKB-6899 in ophthalmology;  

·

our development plans with respect to AKB-6548 and AKB-6899;

·

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including any required post-marketing testing or any labeling and other restrictions;

·

our plans to commercialize AKB-6548, if it is approved;

·

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;

·

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

·

our competitive position;

·

our intellectual property position;

·

developments and projections relating to our competitors and our industry;

·

our estimates regarding expense, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing; and

·

other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors.

All forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q also contains estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

NOTE REGARDING STOCK SPLIT

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in these condensed consolidated financial statements gives retrospective effect to the 1.75-for-1 stock split of the Company’s common stock (the Stock Split) that was effected on March 6, 2014, as well as any other stock-splits in historical periods.

 

 

 


Akebia Therapeutics, Inc.

Table of Contents

 

Part I. Financial Information

  

 

 

 

 

Item 1 – Financial Statements (Unaudited)

  

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

  

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2015 and 2014

  

5

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2015 and 2014

  

6

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

  

7

 

 

 

Item 2 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

  

19

 

 

 

Item 3 – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

  

27

 

 

 

Item 4 – Controls and Procedures

  

27

 

 

 

Part II. Other Information

  

 

 

 

 

Item 1 – Legal Proceedings

  

28

 

 

 

Item 1A. – Risk Factors

  

28

 

 

 

Item 2 – Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

  

51

 

 

 

Item 3 – Defaults upon Senior Securities

  

51

 

 

 

Item 4 – Mine Safety Disclosures

  

51

 

 

 

Item 5 – Other Information

  

51

 

 

 

Item 6 – Exhibits

  

52

 

 

 

Signatures

  

53

 

 

 


PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1.  FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

AKEBIA THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)  

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

27,887

 

 

$

32,780

 

Available for sale securities

 

72,446

 

 

 

76,138

 

Accounts receivable

 

74

 

 

 

48

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

2,288

 

 

 

1,514

 

Total current assets

 

102,695

 

 

 

110,480

 

Property and equipment, net

 

404

 

 

 

210

 

Deferred offering costs

 

55

 

 

 

 

Other assets

 

305

 

 

 

305

 

Total assets

$

103,459

 

 

$

110,995

 

Liabilities and stockholders' equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

4,329

 

 

$

2,021

 

Accrued expenses

 

4,512

 

 

 

4,864

 

Total current liabilities

 

8,841

 

 

 

6,885

 

Other liabilities

 

9

 

 

 

32

 

Total liabilities

$

8,850

 

 

$

6,917

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock $0.00001 par value, 25,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014; 0 shares issued and

  outstanding at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock: $0.00001 par value; 175,000,000 shares authorized at

   March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014; 20,473,624 and  20,370,624

   shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014,

   respectively

 

 

 

 

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

206,146

 

 

 

204,969

 

Treasury stock, at cost, 8,463 shares

 

(161

)

 

 

(162

)

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(8

)

 

 

(56

)

Accumulated deficit

 

(111,368

)

 

 

(100,673

)

Total stockholders' equity

 

94,609

 

 

 

104,078

 

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

$

103,459

 

 

$

110,995

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

4


AKEBIA THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(Unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

$

7,505

 

 

$

6,158

 

General and administrative

 

3,391

 

 

 

3,751

 

Total operating expenses

 

10,896

 

 

 

9,909

 

Operating loss

 

(10,896

)

 

 

(9,909

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

96

 

 

 

19

 

Reimbursements from Aerpio

 

105

 

 

 

193

 

Net loss

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(9,697

)

Reconciliation of net loss to net loss applicable to common

   stockholders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(9,697

)

Accretion on preferred stock

 

 

 

 

(86,900

)

Net loss applicable to common stockholders

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(96,597

)

Net loss per share applicable to common stockholdersbasic

   and diluted

$

(0.53

)

 

$

(43.37

)

Weighted-average number of common shares used in net

   loss per share applicable to common stockholders—basic

   and diluted

 

20,030,129

 

 

 

2,227,058

 

Comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(9,697

)

Other comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized loss on securities

 

(8

)

 

 

 

Comprehensive loss

$

(10,703

)

 

$

(9,697

)

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

5


AKEBIA THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Unaudited)

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

Operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(9,697

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation expense

 

19

 

 

 

8

 

Amortization of premium/discount on investments

 

135

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

1,128

 

 

 

2,445

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

(26

)

 

 

16

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

(775

)

 

 

(720

)

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

1,897

 

 

 

1,910

 

Other liabilities

 

(30

)

 

 

30

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(8,347

)

 

 

(6,008

)

Investing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of equipment

 

(200

)

 

 

(142

)

Proceeds from maturities of available for sale securities

 

9,585

 

 

 

5,500

 

Purchases of available for sale securities

 

(5,980

)

 

 

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

3,405

 

 

 

5,358

 

Financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of redeemable convertible preferred stock, net of

   issuance costs

 

 

 

 

105,754

 

Proceeds from the issuance of common stock

 

50

 

 

 

 

Payments on capital lease obligations

 

(1

)

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

49

 

 

 

105,754

 

Increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

(4,893

)

 

 

105,104

 

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

32,780

 

 

 

21,215

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

$

27,887

 

 

$

126,319

 

Non-cash financing activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unpaid initial public offering issuance costs

$

 

 

$

1,169

 

Unpaid follow-on offering issuance costs

$

55

 

 

$

 

Assets acquired under capital lease

$

12

 

 

$

12

 

 

See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

6


Akebia Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(Unaudited)

March 31, 2015

 

1. Nature of Organization and Operations

Akebia Therapeutics, Inc. (Akebia, or the Company) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on delivering innovative therapies to patients with kidney disease through the biology of hypoxia-inducible factor, or HIF. HIF is the primary regulator of the production of red blood cells in the body and a potentially novel mechanism of treating anemia. The Company’s lead product candidate, AKB-6548, is being developed as a once-daily, oral therapy and has successfully completed a Phase 2b study demonstrating that AKB-6548 can safely and predictably raise hemoglobin levels in non-dialysis patients with anemia related to chronic kidney disease.

The Company’s operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing the Company, business planning, raising capital, acquiring and developing its technology, identifying potential product candidates and undertaking preclinical and clinical studies. The Company has not generated any product revenue to date, nor is there any assurance of any future product revenue. The Company’s product candidates are subject to long development cycles and there is no assurance the Company will be able to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market its product candidates.

The Company is subject to a number of risks including, but not limited to, the need to obtain adequate additional funding, possible failure of preclinical testing or clinical trials, the need to obtain marketing approval for its product candidates, the development of new technological innovations by competitors, the need to successfully commercialize and gain market acceptance of any of the Company’s products that are approved and the ability to protect its proprietary technology. If the Company does not successfully commercialize any of its products, it will be unable to generate product revenue or achieve profitability.

On March 25, 2014, the Company completed its initial public offering, or IPO, whereby the Company sold 6,762,000 shares of common stock, including 879,647 shares of common stock pursuant to the full exercise of an over-allotment option granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering, at a price of $17.00 per share. The shares began trading on the NASDAQ Global Market on March 20, 2014. The aggregate net proceeds received by the Company from the offering were $104,364,560, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by the Company. Upon the closing of the IPO, all outstanding shares of convertible redeemable preferred stock converted into 12,115,183 shares of common stock. Additionally, the Company is now authorized to issue 175,000,000 shares of common stock and 25,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock.

 

In April 2015, the Company completed a follow-on public offering whereby the Company sold 8,363,636 shares of common stock, including 1,090,909 share of common stock pursuant to the full exercise of an over-allotment granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering, at a price of $8.25 per share.  The aggregate net proceeds received by the Company from the offering were approximately $64.6 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by the Company.    

The Company believes that it can continue as a going concern as its cash resources of approximately $100.3 million at March 31, 2015 together with the net proceeds of approximately $64.6 million received from the Company’s follow-on offering completed on April 22, 2015, will be sufficient to allow the Company to fund its current operating plan through the required minimum period of at least the next twelve months.  There can be no assurance, however, that the current operating plan will be achieved in the timeframe anticipated by the Company, or that its cash resources will fund the Company’s operating plan for the period anticipated by the Company or that additional funding will be available on terms acceptable to the Company, or at all.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in these condensed consolidated financial statements gives retrospective effect to the 1.75-for-1 stock split of the Company’s common stock (the Stock Split) that was effected on March 6, 2014 (see Note 6), as well as any other stock-splits in historical periods.

The Company was incorporated on February 27, 2007 under the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Initial Public Offering

On March 25, 2014, the Company completed its IPO. Upon the closing of the IPO, all outstanding shares of convertible redeemable preferred stock converted into 12,115,183 shares of common stock. Our preferred stock was redeemable at the greater of fair value or the original issuance price.  We recorded $86,899,555 of accretion on the preferred stock in the period from January 1, 2014 through

7


the date of the closing of our IPO which represents the difference in the carrying value at December 31, 2013 and the fair value of the preferred stock just prior to conversion into common stock.    

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Akebia Therapeutics Securities Corporation.  All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.  These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).  Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”).

The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations to be expected for the full year. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2014, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 001-3652), which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 4, 2015.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) or other standard setting bodies and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment, which is the business of developing and commercializing proprietary therapeutics based on HIF biology.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates. Management considers many factors in selecting appropriate financial accounting policies and controls, and in developing the estimates and assumptions that are used in the preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. In addition, other factors may affect estimates, including: expected business and operational changes, sensitivity and volatility associated with the assumptions used in developing estimates, and whether historical trends are expected to be representative of future trends. The estimation process often may yield a range of potentially reasonable estimates of the ultimate future outcomes, and management must select an amount that falls within that range of reasonable estimates. Estimates are used in the following areas, among others: stock-based compensation expense, fair value of common stock and preferred stock and the Company’s other equity instruments (in periods prior to the IPO), accrued expenses, prepaid expenses and income taxes.

Prior to the IPO, the Company utilized significant estimates and assumptions in determining the fair value of its common stock. The Company granted stock options at exercise prices not less than the fair market value of its common stock as determined by the Board of Directors contemporaneously at the date such grants were made, with input from management. For periods prior to March 2014, the fair value of common stock at the grant date was adjusted in connection with the Company’s retrospective fair value assessment for financial reporting purposes. Prior to the Company’s IPO, the Board of Directors determined the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock based on a number of objective and subjective factors, including external market conditions affecting the biotechnology industry sector and the prices at which the Company sold shares of preferred stock, the superior rights and preferences of securities senior to the Company’s common stock at the time and the likelihood of achieving a liquidity event, such as an IPO or sale of the Company.

The Company utilized various valuation methodologies in accordance with the framework of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Technical Practice Aid, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, to estimate the fair value of its common stock in periods prior to March 2014. The methodologies included a probability analysis including both a potential public trading scenario and potential sale scenario. In both scenarios, value is estimated using the guideline public company method. The sale scenario includes an adjustment for a market participant acquisition premium. Value is allocated among the preferred and common shares according to the rights associated with each type of security. Valuation methodologies include estimates and assumptions that require the Company’s judgment. These estimates include assumptions regarding future

8


performance, including the successful completion of a public offering. Significant changes to the key assumptions used in the valuations could result in different fair values of common stock at each valuation date.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash on hand, deposits and funds invested in available for sale securities with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase. At March 31, 2015, the Company’s cash is primarily in money market funds. The Company may maintain balances with its banks in excess of federally insured limits.

Investments

Management determines the appropriate classification of securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Currently, the Company classifies all securities as available-for-sale which are included in current assets as they are intended to fund current operations. The Company carries available-for-sale securities at fair value, with temporary unrealized gains and losses, reported in accumulated other comprehensive income, a component of stockholders’ equity (deficit). The Company conducts periodic reviews to identify and evaluate each investment that has an unrealized loss, in accordance with the meaning of other-than-temporary impairment and its application to certain investments. When assessing whether a decline in the fair value of a security is other-than-temporary, the Company considers the fair market value of the security, the duration of the security’s decline, and prospects for the underlying business.   Based on these considerations, the Company did not identify any other-than-temporary unrealized losses. Unrealized losses on available-for-sale securities that are determined to be temporary, and not related to credit loss, are recorded, net of tax, in accumulated other comprehensive income. The amortized cost of debt securities in this category reflects amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity computed under the effective interest method. The Company includes this amortization in the caption “Interest income (expense), net” within the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. We also include in net investment income, realized gains and losses and declines in value determined to be other than temporary. The Company bases the cost of securities sold upon the specific identification method, and includes interest and dividends on securities in interest income.

Research and Development

Costs incurred in connection with research and development activities are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses consist of (i) employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense; (ii) external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as contract research organizations, investigational sites and consultants; (iii) the cost of acquiring, developing and manufacturing clinical study materials; (iv) facilities and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities; and (v) costs associated with preclinical and clinical activities and regulatory operations.

The Company enters into consulting, research and other agreements with commercial firms, researchers, universities and others for the provision of goods and services. Under such agreements, the Company may pay for services on an hourly, monthly, quarterly, project or other basis. Such arrangements are generally cancellable upon reasonable notice and payment of costs incurred. Costs are considered incurred based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks under each contract using information and data provided to us by the Company’s clinical sites and vendors. These costs consist of direct and indirect costs associated with specific projects, as well as fees paid to various entities that perform certain research on behalf of the Company.

Patents

Costs incurred in connection with the application for and issuance of patents are expensed as incurred.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with FASB Topic 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740), which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the condensed consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the condensed consolidated financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if, based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit will more likely than not be realized. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position, as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the Company does not have any significant uncertain tax positions. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.

9


Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (ASC 718). ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock and modifications to existing stock awards, to be recognized in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss based on their fair values. The Company accounts for stock-based awards to non-employees in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 505-50, Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees (ASC 505-50), which requires the fair value of the award to be re-measured at fair value until a performance commitment is reached or counterparty performance is complete. The Company’s stock-based awards are comprised of stock options, shares of restricted stock and shares of common stock. The Company estimates the fair value of options granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company uses the value of its common stock to determine the fair value of restricted stock awards and common stock awards.

The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of certain subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected stock price volatility, (b) the calculation of expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate and (d) expected dividends. Due to the lack of a public market for the trading of the Company’s common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, the Company has based its estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of similar companies that are publicly traded. The historical volatility is calculated based on a period of time commensurate with the expected term assumption. The computation of expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of a representative group of companies with similar characteristics to the Company, including stage of product development and life science industry focus. The Company is in a very early stage of product development with no revenue and the representative group of companies has certain similar characteristics to the Company. The Company believes the group selected has sufficient similar economic and industry characteristics, and includes companies that are most representative of the Company The Company uses the simplified method as prescribed by the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment, to calculate the expected term for options granted to employees as it does not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term. The expected term is applied to the stock option grant group as a whole, as the Company does not expect substantially different exercise or post-vesting termination behavior among its employee population. For options granted to non-employees, the Company utilizes the contractual term of the arrangement as the basis for the expected term assumption. The risk-free interest rate is based on a treasury instrument whose term is consistent with the expected life of the stock options. The expected dividend yield is assumed to be zero as the Company has never paid dividends and has no current plans to pay any dividends on its common stock, which is similar to the Company’s peer group.

The Company’s stock-based awards are subject to either service- or performance-based vesting conditions. Compensation expense related to awards to employees with service-based vesting conditions is recognized on a straight-line basis based on the grant date fair value over the associated service period of the award, which is generally the vesting term. Consistent with the guidance in ASC 505- 50, compensation expense related to awards to non-employees with service-based vesting conditions is recognized on a straight-line basis based on the then-current fair value at each financial reporting date prior to the measurement date over the associated service period of the award, which is generally the vesting term. Compensation expense related to awards to employees with performance-based vesting conditions is recognized based on the grant date fair value over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method to the extent achievement of the performance condition is probable. Consistent with the guidance in ASC 505-50, compensation expense related to awards to non-employees with performance-based vesting conditions is recognized based on the then-current fair value at each financial reporting date prior to the measurement date over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method to the extent achievement of the performance condition is probable.

The Company is also required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant, and revise those estimates in the subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from its estimates. The Company uses historical data to estimate pre-vesting forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. To the extent that actual forfeitures differ from the Company’s estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period the estimates were revised. Stock-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements is based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company is required to disclose information on all assets and liabilities reported at fair value that enables an assessment of the inputs used in determining the reported fair values. FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (ASC 820), establishes a hierarchy of inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the observable inputs be used when available.

10


Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy applies only to the valuation inputs used in determining the reported fair value of the investments, and is not a measure of the investment credit quality. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

·

Level 1 – Valuations based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date.

·

Level 2 – Valuations based on quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly.

·

Level 3 – Valuations that require inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.

To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.

Items measured at fair value on a recurring basis include short-term investments (see Note 5). The carrying amounts of accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities. The rate implicit within the Company’s capital lease obligation approximates market interest rates.

Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-Balance Sheet Risk

Cash, investments and accounts receivable are the only financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk. At March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, all of the Company’s cash was deposited in accounts at two principal financial institutions. The Company maintains its cash with high quality, accredited financial institutions and, accordingly, such funds are subject to minimal credit risk. The Company has no significant off-balance sheet concentrations of credit risk, such as foreign currency exchange contracts, option contracts or other hedging arrangements.

Net Loss per Share

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by adjusting weighted-average shares outstanding for the dilutive effect of common stock equivalents outstanding for the period, determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, preferred stock, stock options and unvested restricted stock are considered to be common stock equivalents, but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would be anti-dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share were the same for all periods presented.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation. Assets under capital lease are included in property and equipment. Property and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally three to seven years. Such costs are periodically reviewed for recoverability when impairment indicators are present. Such indicators include, among other factors, operating losses, unused capacity, market value declines and technological obsolescence. Recorded values of asset groups of equipment that are not expected to be recovered through undiscounted future net cash flows are written down to current fair value, which generally is determined from estimated discounted future net cash flows (assets held for use) or net realizable value (assets held for sale).

11


The following is the summary of property and equipment and related accumulated depreciation as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

 

 

 

Useful Life

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

December 31, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Computer equipment and software

 

3

 

$

111

 

 

$

99

 

Furniture and fixtures

 

5

 

 

237

 

 

 

117

 

Equipment

 

7

 

 

46

 

 

 

6

 

Leasehold improvements

 

Shorter of the

useful life or

remaining

lease term

(3 years)

 

 

55

 

 

 

27

 

Office equipment under capital lease

 

3

 

 

24

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

473

 

 

 

261

 

Less accumulated depreciation

 

 

 

 

(69

)

 

 

(51

)

Net property and equipment

 

 

 

$

404

 

 

$

210

 

Depreciation expense, including expense associated with assets under capital leases, was $18,726 and $8,118 for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014.        

 

3. Available for sale securities

Available for sale securities at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 consist of the following:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

Losses

 

 

Fair Value

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market account

 

$

27,887

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

27,887

 

Total cash and cash equivalents

 

$

27,887

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

27,887

 

Available for sale securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Certificates of deposit

 

 

11,796

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

11,796

 

U.S. Government debt securities

 

 

41,415

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

(11

)

 

 

41,416

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

19,243

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

(14

)

 

 

19,234

 

Total available for sale securities

 

$

72,454

 

 

$

17

 

 

$

(25

)

 

$

72,446

 

Total cash, cash equivalents, and available for sale

   securities

 

$

100,341

 

 

$

17

 

 

$

(25

)

 

$

100,333

 

 

The estimated fair value of the Company’s available for sale securities balance at March 31, 2015, by contractual maturity, is as follows:

 

Due in one year or less

 

$

39,342

 

Due after one year

 

 

33,104

 

Total available for sale securities

 

$

72,446

 

12


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross

 

 

Gross

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amortized Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

Losses

 

 

Fair Value

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

December 31, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market account

 

$

32,780

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

32,780

 

Total cash and cash equivalents

 

$

32,780

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

32,780

 

Available for sale securities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Certificates of deposit

 

 

13,429

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

13,429

 

U.S. Government debt securities

 

 

38,412

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(28

)

 

 

38,385

 

Commercial paper

 

 

2,499

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,499

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

21,854

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

(32

)

 

 

21,825

 

Total available for sale securities

 

$

76,194

 

 

$

4

 

 

$

(60

)

 

$

76,138

 

Total cash, cash equivalents, and available for sale securities

 

$

108,974

 

 

$

4

 

 

$

(60

)

 

$

108,918

 

 

 

4. Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company utilizes a portfolio management company for the valuation of the majority of its investments. This company is an independent, third-party vendor recognized to be an industry leader with access to market information that obtains or computes fair market values from quoted market prices, pricing for similar securities, recently executed transactions, cash flow models with yield curves and other pricing models. For valuations obtained from the pricing service, the Company performs due diligence to understand how the valuation was calculated or derived, focusing on the valuation technique used and the nature of the inputs.

Based on the fair value hierarchy, the Company classifies its cash equivalents and marketable securities within Level 1 or Level 2. This is because the Company values its cash equivalents and marketable securities using quoted market prices or alternative pricing sources and models utilizing market observable inputs.

Assets measured or disclosed at fair value on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2015 are summarized below:

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements Using

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

27,887

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

27,887

 

Certificates of deposit

 

 

 

 

 

11,796

 

 

 

 

 

$

11,796

 

U.S. Government debt securities

 

 

 

 

 

41,416

 

 

 

 

 

$

41,416

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

 

 

 

19,234

 

 

 

 

 

$

19,234

 

 

 

$

27,887

 

 

$

72,446

 

 

$

 

 

$

100,333

 

The Company’s corporate debt securities are all investment grade.

Assets measured or disclosed at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2014 are summarized below:  

  

 

 

Fair Value Measurements Using

 

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

 

Total

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

32,780

 

 

$

 

 

$

 

 

$

32,780

 

Certificates of deposit

 

 

 

 

 

13,429

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,429

 

U.S. Government debt securities

 

 

 

 

 

38,385

 

 

 

 

 

 

38,385

 

Commercial paper

 

 

 

 

 

2,499

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,499

 

Corporate debt securities

 

 

 

 

 

21,825

 

 

 

 

 

 

21,825

 

 

 

$

32,780

 

 

$

76,138

 

 

$

 

 

$

108,918

 

13


The Company had no assets or liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

Investment securities are exposed to various risks such as interest rate, market and credit. Due to the level of risk associated with certain investment securities and the level of uncertainty related to changes in the value of investment securities, it is at least reasonably possible that changes in risks in the near term would result in material changes in the fair value of investments.

 

5. Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses are as follows:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Professional fees

 

$

2,767

 

 

$

2,460

 

Accrued bonus

 

 

328

 

 

 

1,286

 

Accrued vacation

 

 

248

 

 

 

177

 

Accrued severance

 

 

91

 

 

 

179

 

Accrued payroll

 

 

330

 

 

 

213

 

Other

 

 

748

 

 

 

549

 

Total accrued expenses

 

$

4,512

 

 

$

4,864

 

 

In February 2014, the Company entered into a separation agreement with an employee primarily as a result of the transition to the Company’s Cambridge, Massachusetts location. During the first quarter of 2014, the Company recorded severance expense in the amount of $323,685, which was recorded to general and administrative expense. During the first three months of 2015, approximately $46,000 was paid out of the severance accrual. At March 31, 2015, $0 remained in accrued expenses in relation to this separation agreement.

 

In August 2014, the Company entered into a separation agreement with an employee, which became effective on August 13, 2014. The Company will record the expense and liability associated with the separation agreement ratably over the period from August 5, 2014 through December 31, 2015 because the severance payments are subject to continued service and forfeiture until December 31, 2015. During the first quarter of 2015, the Company recorded severance expense in the amount of approximately $72,000, which was recorded to research and development expense.  During the first quarter of 2015, approximately $82,000 was paid out of the severance accrual. Payments under this separation agreement will be paid out through December 2015.

 

6. Stockholders’ Equity

As of March 31, 2015, the authorized capital stock of the Company included 175,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.00001 per share and 25,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, par value $0.00001 per share.

On March 6, 2014, the Company effected a 1.75-for-1 stock split of its outstanding common stock. Unless otherwise indicated, all share data and per share amounts in these condensed consolidated financial statements have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the stock split, as well as any stock splits that occurred in periods prior to March 6, 2014.

Reserved for Future Issuance

As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 based on the authorized shares for each series, the Company has reserved the following shares of common stock for future issuance:

 

 

 

March 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

1,935,099

 

 

 

1,526,346

 

Shares available for future issuance

 

 

1,009,529

 

 

 

1,549,154

 

Total

 

 

2,944,628

 

 

 

3,075,500

 

 

  

7. Income Taxes

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. A valuation allowance is recorded against deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. There were no significant income tax provisions or benefits for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the realization of the favorable tax attributes in

14


future tax returns, the Company has recorded a full valuation allowance against the Company’s otherwise recognizable net deferred tax assets.

 

8. Commitments and Contingencies

In December 2013, the Company entered into a three-year lease for 6,837 square feet of office space in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The lease has monthly lease payments of approximately $31,000 for the first twelve months, with annual rent escalation thereafter, and provides a rent abatement of approximately $31,000 for the first full calendar month of the lease term. The lease term commenced and rental payments began in January 2014. The Company recorded a deferred lease obligation in 2014 which represents the cumulative difference between actual facility lease payments and lease expense recognized ratably over the lease period, which is included in other liabilities.  In accordance with the lease, the Company entered into a cash-collateralized irrevocable standby letter of credit in the amount of $125,345, naming the landlord as beneficiary.  

In December 2014, the Company entered into a First Amendment to Lease (Amendment) for additional office space contiguous to its current office space in Cambridge, Massachusetts.  The Amendment includes leasing an additional 8,530 square feet of office space (Expansion Space), with an occupancy date of March 13, 2015.  The Amendment provides for additional monthly lease payments of approximately $45,000 for the 8,530 square feet for the first twelve months and provides for annual rent escalations thereafter.  The monthly rent on the existing 6,837 square feet will remain at approximately $32,000 through December 31, 2016, the expiration of the lease.  The Amendment includes a Landlord’s contribution for leasehold improvements in the amount of approximately $100,000 which will be accounted for as a deferred lease incentive and reduction in monthly rent expense over the term of the lease.  The Company currently records a deferred lease obligation for the original lease which represents the cumulative difference between actual facility lease payments and lease expense recognized ratably over the lease period and will also record a deferred lease obligation for the Expansion Space at time of occupancy. The Company has an existing cash-collateralized irrevocable standby letter of credit of $125,345, naming the landlord as beneficiary.  In connection with the Amendment, the Company paid an additional cash security deposit to the landlord of $179,130.  These amounts are included in other assets.

The Company leases office equipment under a three year capital lease with payments commencing in February 2014.  The capital lease amounts are included in accrued expenses and other liabilities.

At March 31, 2015, the Company’s future minimum payments required under these leases are as follows:

 

 

Operating

 

 

Capital

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lease

 

 

Lease

 

 

Total

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

2015

 

$

690

 

 

$

6

 

 

$

696

 

2016

 

 

936

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

944

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

5

 

2018

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Total

 

$

1,626

 

 

 

20

 

 

$

1,646

 

Less amount representing interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1

)

 

 

 

 

Present value of minimum lease payments at

   March 31, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

$

19

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Company recorded approximately $122,000 and approximately $98,000 in rent expense for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

 

The Company contracts with various organizations to conduct research and development activities with remaining contract costs to the Company of approximately $6,563,885 and $4,312,081 at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. The scope of the services under the research and development contracts can be modified and the contracts cancelled by the Company upon written notice. In some instances the contracts may be cancelled by the third party upon written notice.                    

 

9. Stock-Based Compensation

On February 28, 2014, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted its 2014 Incentive Plan (2014 Plan) and its 2014 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (ESPP), which were subsequently approved by its stockholders and became effective upon the closing of the Company’s IPO on March 25, 2014. The 2014 Plan replaces the 2008 Equity Incentive Plan (2008 Plan).

The 2014 Plan allows for the granting of stock options, stock appreciation rights, or SARs, restricted stock, unrestricted stock, stock units, performance awards and other awards convertible into or otherwise based on shares of our common stock. Dividend equivalents may also be provided in connection with an award under the 2014 Plan. The Company’s employees, officers, directors and consultants

15


and advisors are eligible to receive awards under the 2014 Plan. The Company initially reserved 1,785,000 shares of its common stock for the issuance of awards under the 2014 Plan. The 2014 Plan provides that the number of shares reserved and available for issuance under the 2014 Plan will automatically increase annually on January 1st of each calendar year, by an amount equal to three percent (3%) of the number of shares of stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of the close of business on the immediately preceding December 31st. The Company’s Board of Directors may act prior to January 1st of any year to provide that there will be no automatic increase in the number of shares available for grant under the 2014 Plan for that year (or that the increase will be less than the amount that would otherwise have automatically been made). Subject to adjustment, no more than 1,131,937 shares of our common stock may be delivered in satisfaction of incentive stock options awarded under the 2014 Plan.

The ESPP authorizes the initial issuance of up to a total of 262,500 shares of the Company’s common stock to participating employees.  The first offering period under the ESPP opened on January 2, 2015.

Any options or awards outstanding under the 2008 Plan at the time of adoption of the 2014 Plan remain outstanding and effective. As of March 31, 2015, the total number of common shares that may be issued under all equity award plans is 2,972,500 and approximately 1,009,529 shares remain available for future grants.

In August 2014, the Company entered into both a separation agreement with an employee and a consulting agreement for continued services to the Company upon the separation date of December 31, 2014.  As a result of the change in employment status to a consultant effective January 1, 2015, the Company recorded approximately $0.2 million of stock compensation expense during the first quarter of 2015.

During the first three months of 2015, the Company granted 521,750 stock options to employees, no stock options to directors and 27,875 restricted stock units to employees.

Stock Options

Options granted by the Company vest over periods of between 12 and 48 months.  Options vest in installments of (i) 25% at the one year anniversary and (ii) in either 36 or 48 equal monthly or 12 equal quarterly installments beginning in the thirteenth month after the initial Vesting Commencement Date (as defined) or grant date, subject to the employee’s continuous service with the Company. Options generally expire ten years after the date of grant.                  

Restricted Stock

On December 23, 2013, the Company issued 450,224 shares of restricted stock to employees and 79,067 shares of restricted stock to non-employees at a grant date fair value of $7.42 per share.  The aggregate grant date fair value for the shares of restricted stock issued on December 23, 2013 totaled approximately $3.9 million The awards of restricted stock contain a performance condition wherein vesting is contingent upon the Company’s consummation of a liquidity event, as defined, prior to the fifth anniversary of the date of grant. Certain of the awards of restricted stock have a requisite service period that was complete upon grant. The remainder of the awards of restricted stock have a requisite service period of four years whereby the award vests 25% on the one year anniversary of the Vesting Commencement Date (as defined), then ratably on the first day of each calendar quarter for 12 quarters, subject to continuous service by the individual and achievement of the performance target. Due to the nature of the performance condition, the Company had concluded that the performance condition was not probable of achievement and therefore, recognition of compensation cost had been deferred until the occurrence of a liquidity event, as defined.  The liquidity event occurred upon the closing of the IPO on March 25, 2014.  Accordingly, the Company recognized approximately $0.1 million of compensation expense on March 25, 2014 related to the restricted stock awards with a requisite service period that was complete upon grant.  Compensation expense related to the remainder of the restricted stock awards is being recognized over the associated requisite service period commencing on March 25, 2014.

16


Restricted Stock Units

On March 6, 2015, the Company issued 27,875 restricted stock units to employees.  The restricted stock units vest 100% on the 3 year anniversary.  Total stock-compensation expense related to the restricted stock units is approximately $0.3 million and will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The Company recorded approximately $7,000 of stock-based compensation expense related to the restricted stock units during the first quarter of 2015.  

Compensation Expense Summary

The Company has recognized the following compensation cost related to share-based awards:

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Research and development

 

$

565

 

 

$

945

 

General and administrative

 

 

563

 

 

 

1,500

 

Total

 

$

1,128

 

 

$

2,445

 

 

Compensation expense by type of award:

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

Stock options

 

$

699

 

 

$

285

 

Restricted stock

 

 

400

 

 

 

2,160

 

Restricted stock units

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

Employee stock purchase plan

 

 

21

 

 

 

 

Total

 

$

1,128

 

 

$

2,445

 

 

Included in the compensation expense for the three months ended March 31, 2014, is approximately $1.0 million related to the modification of awards in connection with an employee separation agreement in the first quarter of 2014.

 

10. Employee Retirement Plan

During 2008, the Company established a retirement plan (the Plan) authorized by Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. In accordance with the Plan, all employees who have attained the age of 21 are eligible to participate in the Plan as of the first Entry Date, as defined, following their date of employment. Each employee can contribute a percentage of compensation up to a maximum of the statutory limits per year. Company contributions are discretionary, and no contributions were made during the three months ended March 31, 2015 or 2014.

 

11. Net Loss per Share

The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders:  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

 

 

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

Numerator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(9,697

)

Accretion on preferred stock

 

 

 

 

 

(86,900

)

Net loss applicable to common stockholders

 

$

(10,695

)

 

$

(96,597

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denominator:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average number of common shares – basic

   and diluted

 

 

20,030,129

 

 

 

2,227,058

 

Net loss per share applicable to common

   stockholders – basic and diluted

 

$

(0.53

)

 

$

(43.37

)

 

17


The amounts in the table below were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, prior to the use of the treasury stock method, due to their anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

Outstanding stock options

 

 

1,935,099

 

 

 

1,219,805

 

Unvested restricted stock

 

 

345,019

 

 

 

614,824

 

Unvested restricted stock units

 

 

27,875

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

2,307,993

 

 

 

1,834,629

 

 

 

12. Subsequent Event

 

On April 22, 2015, the Company completed a follow-on public offering whereby the Company sold 8,363,636 shares of common stock, including 1,090,909 shares of common stock pursuant to the full exercise of an over-allotment granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering, at a price of $8.25 per share.  The aggregate net proceeds received by the Company from the offering were approximately $64.6 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by the Company.

 

 

            

 

 

18


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following information should be read in conjunction with the unaudited financial information and the notes thereto included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2014, and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contained in our annual report on Form 10-K filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on March 4, 2015, which we refer to as our annual report.

This report contains forward-looking statements that are being made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, or PSLRA, with the intention of obtaining the benefits of the “safe harbor” provisions of the PSLRA. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. In this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” and similar expressions (as well as other words or expressions referencing future events, conditions or circumstances) are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

Our actual results and the timing of certain events may differ materially from the results discussed, projected, anticipated, or indicated in any forward-looking statements. We caution our readers that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

The following information, including all forward-looking statements, should be considered in light of factors discussed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including those risks identified under Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors.

We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements made by us, which speak only as of the date they are made. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the SEC, to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements may be based, or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

Product Overview

 

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel proprietary therapeutics based on hypoxia inducible factor, or HIF, biology and the commercialization of these products for patients with kidney disease. HIF is the primary regulator of the production of red blood cells, or RBCs, in the body and a potentially novel mechanism of treating anemia.

 

Our Product Candidates

 

AKB-6548

 

Our lead product candidate, AKB-6548, is being developed as a once-daily, oral therapy. AKB-6548 works by a differentiated mechanism of action that we believe has the potential to be safer than that of injectable recombinant protein erythropoiesis stimulating agents, or rESAs. This novel mechanism of action is referred to as HIF prolyl-hydroxylase, or HIF-PH, inhibition. Instead of binding directly to the erythropoietin, or EPO, receptors on cells in the bone marrow, AKB-6548 leads to activation of critical pathways for hemoglobin and RBC production. This approach mimics the physiological adjustment made by the body when exposed to reduced oxygen levels at higher altitudes.

 

Anemia is a serious medical condition in which blood is deficient in RBCs and hemoglobin, both of which are critical in delivering oxygen to tissue. Anemia generally exists when hemoglobin, a protein in RBCs that carries oxygen, is less than 13 g/dL in men or 12 g/dL in women. Untreated anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, increased risk of progression of multiple diseases and death. Anemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, or CKD, cancer, heart failure, inflammatory diseases and other critical illnesses, as well as in the elderly.

 

We have successfully completed a Phase 2b study of AKB-6548 in non-dialysis patients with anemia related to CKD. In March 2015, we presented positive results from this Phase 2b study of AKB-6548 at the World Congress of Nephrology. The study demonstrated that AKB-6548 raised hemoglobin levels with no safety signal observed. We expect to initiate Phase 3 studies of AKB-6548 for anemia secondary to CKD in the non-dialysis population in 2015. If the results from these Phase 3 studies support the results we have previously demonstrated across ten clinical studies with a total of 20,000 days of patient exposure, we anticipate submitting a New Drug Application, or NDA, for AKB-6548 in the United States by 2019.

 

19


We have also initiated Phase 2 clinical development of AKB-6548 for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis, the second indication we plan to pursue. The results from that study are expected in the third quarter of 2015. Assuming these results are positive, we expect to initiate our Phase 3 program of AKB-6548 in dialysis-dependent patients in 2016.

 

We have commenced discussions with United States and European regulatory authorities regarding the design of our Phase 3 program. These discussions are ongoing, and will not be finalized until after our end of Phase 2 meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the second quarter of 2015, as well as our formal scientific advice meeting with the European Medicines Agency, which we expect to occur in the third quarter of 2015. The elements of our global Phase 3 program will be determined over the course of these discussions, with the goal of harmonizing a single, global Phase 3 program. We expect the program to include a cardiovascular outcomes study and, based on guidance from FDA, we may use an active or placebo control depending on the outcome of additional discussions with global regulatory authorities.

 

AKB-6899

 

Our preclinical candidate, AKB-6899, is a small molecule HIF-PH inhibitor with potential therapeutic benefit in oncology and ophthalmology. AKB-6899 has demonstrated the ability in vitro to reduce VEGF levels in the presence of hypoxia. In several preclinical mouse models, AKB-6899 has been active in reducing tumor growth and development of metastases. Therefore, Investigational New Drug, or IND, enabling studies are being performed with the goal of opening an IND with FDA in 2015. We expect to complete preclinical proof-of-concept studies of AKB-6899 in ophthalmology in early 2016.

 

We own worldwide rights to our product candidates. If approved by regulatory authorities, we plan to commercialize AKB-6548 in the United States ourselves and intend to seek one or more collaborators to commercialize the product candidate in additional markets.

Operating Overview

Since our inception in 2007, we have devoted the largest portion of our resources to our development efforts relating to AKB-6548, including preparing for and conducting clinical studies of AKB-6548, providing general and administrative support for these operations and protecting our intellectual property. We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. We have funded our operations primarily through our IPO, our follow-on public offering, and the private placement of preferred stock, common stock and convertible notes.

We have never been profitable and have incurred net losses in each year since inception. Our net losses were $10.7 million and $9.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Substantially all of our net losses resulted from costs incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations.

We expect to continue to incur significant operating expenses and increased operating losses for at least the next several years. We expect our expenses will increase substantially in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:

continue our Phase 2 clinical study of AKB-6548 for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis;

prepare for and initiate a global Phase 3 development program of AKB-6548 for the treatment of anemia secondary to CKD;

seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;

have our product candidates manufactured for clinical trials and for commercial sale;

establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval;

continue preclinical and clinical development of AKB-6899;

initiate additional preclinical, clinical or other studies for additional indications for AKB-6548, AKB‑6899 and other product candidates that we may develop or acquire;

seek to discover and develop additional product candidates;

acquire or in-license other commercial products, product candidates and technologies;

make royalty, milestone or other payments under any future in-license agreements;

maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio;

attract and retain skilled personnel; and

20


create additional infrastructure to support our operations as a public company.

We do not expect to generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete development and obtain regulatory approval for one or more of our product candidates, which we expect will take a number of years and is subject to significant uncertainty. We have no manufacturing facilities, and all of our manufacturing activities are contracted out to third parties. Additionally, we currently utilize third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, to carry out our clinical development activities, and we do not yet have a sales organization. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to product sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution. Accordingly, we will seek to fund our operations through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources. However, we may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into other arrangements when needed on favorable terms or at all. Our failure to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to develop our products.

On March 6, 2014, we effected a 1.75-for-1 stock split of our outstanding common stock. Our historical share and per share information have been retroactively adjusted to give effect to this stock split. Shares of common stock underlying outstanding stock options and other equity instruments were proportionately increased and the respective exercise prices, if applicable, were proportionately reduced in accordance with the terms of the agreements governing such securities. Shares of common stock reserved for issuance upon the conversion of our Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, Series B Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock and Series C Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock were proportionately increased, and the respective conversion prices were proportionately reduced.

On March 25, 2014, we completed our IPO whereby we sold 6,762,000 shares of common stock, including 879,647 shares of common stock pursuant to the full exercise of an over-allotment option granted to the underwriters, at a price of $17.00 per share. The shares began trading on the NASDAQ Global Market on March 20, 2014. The aggregate net proceeds received by us from the offering were $104,364,560, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses. Upon the closing of the IPO, all of our outstanding shares of convertible redeemable preferred stock converted into 12,115,183 shares of common stock. Additionally, we are now authorized to issue 175,000,000 shares of common stock and 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock.

 

On April 22, 2015, we completed a follow-on public offering whereby we sold 8,363,636 shares of common stock, including 1,090,909 share of common stock pursuant to the full exercise of an over-allotment granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering, at a price of $8.25 per share.  The aggregate net proceeds received by us from the offering were approximately $64.6 million, net of underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.

Financial Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from the sales of products or other means. Our ability to generate product revenue and become profitable depends upon our ability to successfully develop and commercialize products. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates and begin to commercialize any approved products. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when or if we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we are able to generate revenue from the sale of our products, we may not become profitable. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce our operations.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the development of our product candidates, which include:

·

employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense;

·

expenses incurred under agreements with the CROs and investigative sites that conduct our clinical studies;

·

the cost of acquiring, developing and manufacturing clinical study materials;

·

facilities, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, insurance and other supplies; and

·

costs associated with preclinical and clinical activities.

21


Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Costs for certain development activities are recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information and data provided to us by our vendors and our clinical sites.

We cannot determine with certainty the duration and completion costs of the current or future clinical studies of our product candidates or if, when, or to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any of our product candidates that obtain regulatory approval. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for any of our product candidates.

The duration, costs and timing of clinical studies and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

the rate of progress of, results of and cost of completing our Phase 2 clinical development for AKB-6548 for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis;

assuming the AKB-6548 clinical development program for CKD patients not on dialysis advances to Phase 3, the scope, size, rate of progress, results and costs of initiating and completing our Phase 3 development program of AKB-6548;

the scope, progress, results and costs of preclinical development, laboratory testing and clinical studies for AKB-6899 and any other product candidates that we may develop or acquire;

the cost of having our product candidates manufactured for clinical trials;

difficulties or delays in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;

unanticipated changes to laws or regulations applicable to our clinical trials; and

the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for AKB-6548 and any other product candidates, if clinical trials are successful.

A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of a product candidate could mean a significant change in the costs and timing associated with the development of that product candidate. For example, if the FDA, EMA or another regulatory authority were to require us to conduct clinical studies in addition to or different from those that we currently anticipate, or if we experience significant delays in enrollment in any of our clinical studies, we could be required to expend significant additional financial resources and time on the completion of clinical development.

From inception through March 31, 2015, we have incurred $84.6 million in research and development expenses. We plan to increase our research and development expenditures for the foreseeable future as we continue the development of AKB-6548 and AKB-6899. Our current and planned research and development activities include the following:

We plan to initiate a Phase 3 development program for AKB-6548 in 2015 for anemia secondary to CKD in patients not on dialysis.

We have begun Phase 2 clinical development for AKB-6548 for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis, the second indication we will pursue. The results from that study are expected in the third quarter of 2015.

We intend to file an IND and begin Phase 1 studies for AKB-6899.

Our direct research and development expenses consist principally of external costs, such as startup fees paid to investigators, consultants, central laboratories and CROs in connection with our clinical studies, and costs related to acquiring and manufacturing clinical study materials.

We currently have two programs to which our research and development costs are attributable. Historically, we have not accumulated and tracked our research and development costs or our personnel and personnel-related costs on a program-by-program basis. Our employee and infrastructure resources, and many of our costs, were directed to broadly applicable research endeavors. As a result, we are unable to specify precisely the historical costs incurred for each of our programs on a program-by-program basis.

General and Administrative Expenses

We obtain from, and provide to, Aerpio services under the terms of administrative services agreements between the two companies. See “Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions.” General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for personnel, including stock-based compensation and travel expenses.  Other general and administrative expense include facility-related costs, fees for directors, accounting and legal services fees, recruiting fees and expenses associated with obtaining and maintaining patents.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we increase our headcount to support our continued research and development and potential commercialization of our product candidates. We also anticipate increased expenses

22


related to finance, legal, regulatory and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with exchange listing and SEC requirements, and our other costs associated with being a public company. Additionally, we anticipate an increase in payroll and related expenses if and when we prepare for commercial operations, especially in sales and marketing.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our condensed consolidated financial statements. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to accrued expenses and stock-based compensation. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events, and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

While our significant accounting policies are described in more detail in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we believe the following accounting policies to be most critical to the judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements.

Accrued Research and Development Expenses

As part of the process of preparing our condensed consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our accrued expenses. This process involves reviewing open contracts and purchase orders, communicating with our personnel to identify services that have been performed on our behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when we have not yet been invoiced or otherwise notified of the actual cost. The majority of our service providers invoice us monthly in arrears for services performed. We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in our condensed consolidated financial statements based on facts and circumstances known to us at that time. We confirm the accuracy of our estimates with the service providers and make adjustments if necessary. Examples of estimated accrued research and development expenses include expenses for:

CROs in connection with clinical studies;

investigative sites in connection with clinical studies;

vendors in connection with preclinical development activities; and

vendors related to product manufacturing, development and distribution of clinical materials.

We base our expenses related to clinical studies on our estimates of the services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with multiple CROs that conduct and manage clinical studies on our behalf. The financial terms of these agreements are subject to negotiation, vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows. The scope of services under these contracts can be modified and some of the agreements may be cancelled by either party upon written notice. There may be instances in which payments made to our vendors will exceed the level of services provided and result in a prepayment of the clinical expense. Payments under some of these contracts depend on factors such as the successful enrollment of subjects and the completion of clinical study milestones. In accruing service fees, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If the actual timing of the performance of services or the level of effort varies from our estimate, we adjust the accrual or prepaid accordingly.

Although we do not expect our estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, if our estimates of the status and timing of services performed differ from the actual status and timing of services performed we may report amounts that are too high or too low in any particular period. To date, there have been no material differences between our estimates and the amount actually incurred.

 Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-Based Awards

We issue stock-based awards to employees and non-employees, generally in the form of stock options, restricted stock and shares of common stock. We account for our stock-based compensation awards in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, or ASC 718. ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options and restricted stock and modifications to existing stock awards, to be recognized in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss based on their fair values. We account for stock-based awards to non-employees in accordance with FASB ASC

23


Topic 505-50, Equity-Based-Payments to Non-Employees, or ASC 505-50, which requires the fair value of the award to be re-measured at fair value until a performance commitment is reached or counterparty performance is complete. Described below is the methodology we have utilized in measuring stock-based compensation expense. Since the consummation of our IPO, stock option, common stock and restricted stock values are determined based on the quoted market price of our common stock.

We estimate the fair value of our stock-based awards of options to purchase shares of common stock to employees and non-employees using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including (a) the expected stock price volatility, (b) the calculation of the expected term of the award, (c) the risk-free interest rate and (d) expected dividends. Due to the lack of a public market for the trading of our common stock and a lack of company-specific historical and implied volatility data, we have based our estimate of expected volatility on the historical volatility of a group of similar companies that are publicly traded. The historical volatility is calculated based on a period of time commensurate with the expected term assumption. The computation of expected volatility is based on the historical volatility of a representative group of companies with similar characteristics to our company, including stage of product development and life science industry focus. We are a company in a very early stage of product development with no revenue and the representative group of companies has certain similar characteristics. We believe the group selected has sufficient similar economic and industry characteristics, and includes companies that are most representative of our company. We use the simplified method as prescribed by the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment, to calculate the expected term for options granted to employees as we do not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate the expected term. The expected term is applied to the stock option grant group as a whole, as we do not expect substantially different exercise or post-vesting termination behavior among our employee population. For options granted to non-employees, we utilize the contractual term of the arrangement as the basis for the expected term assumption. The risk-free interest rate is based on a treasury instrument whose term is consistent with the expected life of the stock options. The expected dividend yield is assumed to be zero as we have never paid dividends and have no current plans to pay any dividends on our common stock, similar to our peer group. We estimate grant date fair value of restricted stock awards with corresponding promissory notes using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Post IPO, the grant date fair value of restricted stock award grants without a promissory note and awards of common stock has been based on the estimated value of our common stock at the date of grant.

Our stock-based awards are subject to either service or performance-based vesting conditions. Compensation expense related to awards to employees with service-based vesting conditions is recognized on a straight-line basis based on the grant date fair value over the associated service period of the award, which is generally the vesting term. Consistent with the guidance in ASC 505-50, compensation expense related to awards to non-employees with service-based vesting conditions is recognized on a straight-line basis based on the then-current fair value at each financial reporting date prior to the measurement date over the associated service period of the award, which is generally the vesting term. Compensation expense related to awards to employees with performance-based vesting conditions is recognized based on the grant date fair value over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method to the extent achievement of the performance condition is probable. Consistent with the guidance in ASC 505-50, compensation expense related to awards to non-employees with performance-based vesting conditions is recognized based on the then-current fair value at each financial reporting date prior to the measurement date over the requisite service period using the accelerated attribution method to the extent achievement of the performance condition is probable.

We are also required to estimate forfeitures at the time of grant, and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from our estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. To the extent that actual forfeitures differ from our estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period the estimates were revised. Stock-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements is based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.

In June 2011, certain of our employees purchased shares of our restricted stock in exchange for promissory notes. Although these notes were 50% recourse to the employees, we have accounted for the promissory notes as nonrecourse in their entirety since the promissory notes are not aligned with a corresponding percentage of the underlying shares. Accordingly, we have accounted for the combination of the promissory note and restricted stock as a grant of an option, as the substance is similar to the grant of an option. The exercise price of this stock option is the principal and interest due on the promissory note. The fair value of the stock option is recognized over the requisite service period (not the term of the promissory note) through a charge to compensation cost. The maturity date of the promissory notes reflects the legal term of the stock option for purposes of valuing the award. The outstanding principal and interest on the promissory notes was paid in full during the third quarter of 2014.  

Stock-based compensation totaled approximately $1.1 million and $2.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

We expect the impact of our stock-based compensation expense for stock options and restricted stock granted to employees and non-employees to grow in future periods due to the potential increases in the fair value of our common stock and the increase in the number of grants as a result of an increase in headcount.

24


Emerging Growth Company Status

The JOBS Act permits an “emerging growth company” to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We chose to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2015 and 2014

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

March 31, 2015

 

 

March 31, 2014

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

 

(In Thousands)

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

$

7,505

 

 

$